Revelation 3:7-13, NRSV — Performance Criticism
March 29, 2018. Formatted for Snowbunny.
Who is speaking? Πνεῦμα (pneuma) as “the Spirit” — wind, breath.
v. 7: Cousin’s suicide.
v. 8: Bubble blower.
v. 9: Boy who comforts angels.
v. 10: Hugs are blessings.
v. 11: Rainbow photograph.
v. 12: John on the bench.
v. 13: Breath.
Three major ways to view Revelation
Historical: Scholarship’s preference. Revelation unveils the past.
Futurist/Prophetic-predictive: Popular Christianity & mass mainstream. Revelation peers into the future.
Idealist/Symbolic: Across borders. Revelation illuminates universal messages.
The three views, questioning
- Performance criticism’s emphasis on orality. How do I speak as pneuma?
- Mystical writings transcribable to physicality. Revelation is apocalyptic, mystical, and visionary.
- Lessons from our course: Importance of context. “The conviction that God’s word speaks directly to every age has not been accompanied by the appreciation that it does so as mediated through its initial historical expression.” (Johnson, p. 508).
Empowerment breathes for recognition
What would I, a human being, say with the pneuma?
v. 7: Empowerment is refuge.
v. 8: Empowerment says, “I see you.”
v. 9: Empowerment is integrity.
v. 10: Empowerment is offering aegis.
v. 11: Empowerment is affirming.
v. 12: Empowerment is the climax of recognition.
v. 13: Empowerment remembers.
To Philadelphia, the Wind
“Remember me,” is what I would say for the pneuma. The Spirit empowers the people, and the people reveal the Spirit.
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———. “Performance Criticism: An Emerging Methodology in Second Testament Studies—Part I.” Biblical Theology Bulletin (2008) 36: 118-133.
———. “Performance Criticism: An Emerging Methodology in Second Testament Studies—Part II.” Biblical Theology Bulletin (2008) 36: 164-184.
Ruiz, Jean-Pierre.“The Revelation to John.” In The New Oxford Annotated Bible. New Revised Standard Version, 4th edition, edited by Michael D. Coogan et al., 2153-2155, 2159-2160. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
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